A … Two leaders had interpreted Marxism in different and apparently opposite ways and the country still bore the scars. Yet everything Stalin did in power was justified by reference to Marxist-Leninist doctrine. The only way of determining whether Napoleon consolidated or betrayed the revolution is to explore his actions such as his military success, Dictatorship and social reforms. ", A Christmas Carol by Charles Dickens is one of those stories we can’t seem to get enough of. At the time, 70% of Russians were illiterate. With more defeats internationally, the bureaucracy strengthened its hold on power. The ideal teacher. But the isolation sealed the fate the Revolution. The response to the Krondstadt civil rebellion highlights Lenin’s dictatorial tendencies; it was a protest against the harshness of Bolshevik rule, and it was put down by force. The NEP improved living conditions for the peasantry, and Lenin established a ‘smychka’2 or alliance with them, but he was also responsible for identifying the ‘kulak’ class which Stalin would later ‘liquidate’. Did Napoleon Betray The Revolution Term paper. Stalin betrayed any common decency Lenin may have kept and used the system inherited from him to terrorise his people for his own security. Yet both had state protection and bodyguards, Stalin with poison tasters and cars with three-inch thick bullet proof windows5. It was the isolation of the revolution under terrible backward conditions that produced Stalinism. At the same time Stalin made his own form of government inseparable in the public eye from Leninism, appearing alongside him not only in posters but also ultimately in death, in the Lenin Mausoleum. Stalin’s dictatorship in the USSR can be characterised as a degeneration workers’ state, where the economy is nationalised, but the working class has been denied control by a monstrous regime run by bureaucratic and dictatorial methods. He was certainly playing a Machiavellian game in politics and was clearly concerned about suffering the same fate as his rivals. After the attempted assassination of Lenin by the Socialist Revolutionaries, who were Lenin’s last remaining political allies in 1918, the ‘red terror’ was launched by the Cheka; this turned what its leader, Latsis, called “a seeing eye and a heavy hand”2 into an “indiscriminate killing machine”5. Did Napoleon Bonaparte Uphold Or Betray The Revolutionary Ideal. Trotsky was not without fault – he was a harsh man, the commander of the Red Army who advocated the use of chemical weapons to suppress the Krondstadt rebellion. It could be said that in many ways Stalin ‘personalised’ the USSR. We re-publish here an article written by our comrade Andy from Goldsmiths Marxists in 2017, which outlines the radical history of tenants' struggles in Britain, from the beginning of the twentieth century onwards. "[It] was a catastrophe suffered by the Chinese nation. Sadly for Stalin and Russia’s long-suffering peasantry, his trust in Hitler was misplaced and operation Barbarossa was launched in September 1941, too late in the year on the Nazis’ part to avoid the treacherous Russian winter. Only on the basis of a highly developed industry, agriculture, science and technology is it possible to guarantee the conditions for the free development of human beings, starting with a drastic reduction in the working day: the prior conditi… That revolution was led by the Bolshevik Party under Lenin and Trotsky. Marxists can have high hopes therefore for the success of the world revolution which is already beginning to take shape amongst the working classes in every country. Why Stalin Triumphed. The conditions in Russia of widespread illiteracy and economic backwardness don’t exist. Did Stalin 'betray' the revolution? Stalin is seen as the egotistical tyrant who betrayed his father figures. Observation - Disorganisation • During a Home-Economics practical session a disorganised teacher was observed. It was ironic that the Communist movement had become so dependent on one man in spite of its doctrine, which warned against putting faith in a leader, and its name, which emphasised the will of the ‘community’.Lenin justified the revolution by claiming it would be the ‘spark’ which would ignite the workers of the rest of the world, but the country was clearly not ready for revolution by Marx’s standards – in “a country of one hundred million peasants and five million proletarians”, Bolshevism was no mass movement. Weight of evidence suggests strongly that he had a cold personality and was intensely paranoid. Vladimir Lenin was, I'm sure you know, the leader and architect of the revolution. 4, June 1988) As we write, the pre-congress discussion for the All Union 19th. That revolution was led by the Bolshevik Party under Lenin and Trotsky. While the ideologists of capitalism maintain that we have come a long way since the days of slum tenements, the reality is that poor housing conditions are an everyday experience for many workers and youth and Britain. Marx argued that the working class organized as a class for itself would have the power to rally the majority of the nation to take political and economic power out of the hands of the capitalist class and replace it with a democratic workers state. Stalin's death. Indeed, the ‘Permanent Revolution’ which he advocated adhered far more closely to the Marxist ideal than Stalin’s apparently odd concept of ‘Socialism In One Country’. With the removal of the ‘Dumas’ from the political sphere there appeared to be less free speech than ever before.Josef Stalin was not the favoured successor to Lenin, and many historians have suggested that Leon Trotsky would have been a far better leader. That revolution was led by the Bolshevik Party under Lenin and Trotsky. It must not be forgotten that Lenin ‘liquidated’ the Cossacks in what appeared to be a prototype of ‘de-kulakisation’. Therefore, in the aspects of terror and ideology, Stalin seems to have mostly betrayed Lenin’s legacy, even though, on the surface, it may have looked like Stalin was fulfilling it by following in Lenin’s footsteps in terms of the extent of his reign of terror and the motives behind his political style. The theoretical difference between Tsarist and Communist Russia was huge; the practical difference in the end was minimal. 1 No. These were political tools for Stalin; they helped create an unassailable position for him as supreme leader of the USSR, a climate of relentless fear under the shadow of his secret police, and what Nikita Khrushchev later identified as a ‘cult of the personality’. Stalin, who was a second rate figure, reflected the interests of the bureaucrats. For Stalin, the only way to avoid this was to rapidly galvanise all resources available and bring about an industrial revolution, a ‘revolution from above’. Stalin remained all his life true to the ideal of a classless, stateless world society. Stalin did not know that without the development of heavy ... begin an evolution which always lands them in the camp of the counter-revolution. The first complete edition of Trotsky’s unfinished biography of Stalin has just been published by. These were elements of the monolithic power base which was the antithesis of everything Marx envisaged. Marx and Engels explained long ago that socialism - a classless society - requires material conditions in order to exist. Marx wasn’t born a Marxist, many different things pull people towards Marxist ideas or inspire them think in a certain way. Indeed, the implications of this are so massive that the historian Volkogonov – albeit a known anti-Leninist – wrote that “all of the evil in the soviet system in its 74-year existence stemmed from Lenin”. Stalin’s mediocrity reflected the interests of the officialdom. The Tsar’s vocal lack of sympathy for the innocents who were massacred in a protest on Bloody Sunday in 1905 pales in comparison with Stalin’s astonishing lack of sympathy or action for a perpetually poor and starving nation. Other examples of Lenin’s less than perfect record are his control of the media introduction of limited capitalism to the country in the form of the New Economic Policy, discredited by Ball as the “New Exploitation of the Proletariat”. By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy. Lenin did not believe that Russia could survive the war. As Orwell pointed out in his book ‘Animal Farm’, certainly by the time of Stalin’s death few people could trust their memories of what life was like before the revolution as they had been told so many half-truths and lies. These are merely ideals, and fall apart under scrutiny.Vladimir Lenin was responsible for establishing and legitimating almost every facet of Stalin’s dictatorship. There will be no one party state, there will be free elections, the right of recall, no official on higher than workers’ wages and the rotation of all functions between different people. (repost of deleted question) A user posted a question with this title and the following text, but then deleted it after I answered: I hear many people say that if Vladimir Lenin would have lived long enough for Trotsky to come to power that the USSR would have never collapsed. This book, along with many other works by Trotsky introduced an important concept that illustrates the phenomenon of the rise of people like Stalin and Mao: Proletarian Bonapartism. If Marx and Engels would have tolerated such extreme deviation in order to sustain the workers’ revolution in the long term, then Stalin was acting in the best interests of the USSR. The housing question in Britain: a history of struggle, Trotsky’s advice to young Marxists – “don’t spread yourself too thin”, ‘A Christmas Carol’ and the horrors of bourgeois morality. Learn about different inspirations for Marxist students. Why did Stalin rather than Trotsky emerge of the leader of the USSR in 1929? He did not just ‘ditch common decency’2, he was a cruel man who would not tolerate dissent; his attack on ‘factionalism’ to stop animosity in the party was hypocritical considering that he was responsible for the Russian SDP’s split into Bolshevik and Menshevik factions to begin with, in 1905. In many ways I support more of what Stalin and Mao did than any other US president , the country that I am from. While the Tsar lived in the opulence of the Winter Palace, Stalin was widely held to be living a modest life; paradoxically the only part of Marxist doctrine he did not seem to twist to suit himself. By the time of Josef Stalin’s death in 1953, the face and structure of Russia had changed forever. The British education system won’t tell you the truth. In this way it can be claimed that Lenin not only betrayed the revolution through his dictatorial tendencies, he also misjudged Marx to the point of betrayal. Answer. There is a very high cultural level, where people can participate fully in the running of society. Nor was it particularly one of Lenin’s; he ignored Trotsky’s protests and ordered the signing of the 1917 treaty of Brest-Litovsk, sacrificing vast swathes of his own country to Germany. However, Marx did explain that you do not always need to use violence to achieve revolution. Did Joseph Stalin betray the revolution? Stalin, however, made his stance clear in his ‘Mother Russia’ speech of 1931. The central pillar of the dictatorship was the one party state; rival parties were banned such as the liberal Cadets, before the Bolsheviks became the only legal party. The Revolution Betrayed: What Is the Soviet Union and Where Is It Going? Yes, Stalin betrayed the Revolution if you believe in Trostsky’s version of Communism. GCSE. 1. Instead of world revolution, he put forward “socialism in one country”, which suited the bureaucrats. Did Stalin “betray the world revolution?” The first important event in Soviet foreign policy was the war with Germany, in which the new state was engaged when it was established. It is the only serious Marxist analysis of what happened to the Russian Revolution after the death of Lenin. Stalin was created by the machine. ‘Democracy’ as such in Russia lasted exactly one day, January 6, 1918 before the Constituent Assembly was shut down by force. A detailed biography of Joseph Stalin that includes includes images, quotations and the main facts of his life. It is ironic that Stalin took Hitler at his word while apparently distrusting the vast majority of the population of his own country and the entire outside world. Asked by Wiki User. His policies are partially based upon the principles of the French Revolution. It was a U-turn on both Marxism and Lenin’s previous policy of ‘war communism’ and angered the left of the party. Many of these careerists had no interest in seeing the success of a genuinely socialist revolution. Top Answer. Alternatively his protection could be seen as just a symbol of his intense paranoia which had been with him since his deprived childhood3.Stalinism could be excused as just an attempt to secure isolated Russia’s place in a hostile world, with ‘Socialism In One Country’ being the only way in which there could be any socialism at all at a time when Trotsky’s ‘Permanent Revolution’ was looking like a na�ve dream. Key Stage 3. The only way of determining whether Napoleon consolidated or betrayed the revolution is to explore his actions such as his military success, Dictatorship and social reforms. Those who would say that Napoleon saved the Revolution would say that by Napoleon taking power, he single handedly saved France, but I say that he didn't.Napoleon for the most part stabilized France and brought in good reforms, but not the way the Revolution Idea intended it to be. Lenin appeared to want to be in conflict with the majority of his people; it is clear he did not listen to their wishes. The result of Stalin’s dictatorship, documented by Trotsky in his book, was not the establishment of socialism but a totalitarian caricature. Trotsky is Orwell’s ‘Snowball’, a blameless defender of the revolution who would have been far more preferable as a leader to the man who sent him into exile. Walter Lacqueur Stalin: The Glasnost Revelations (1990) Richard Pipes (ed) The Unknown Lenin: From the Soviet Archives (1996) Robert Service Three Whys of the Russian Revolution (1998) Robert Service Lenin: A Political Life (3 vols, 1985-92) Robert Service The Russian Revolution 1917-32 (1986) Almost all left wing parties in Britain from Labour to Communist seem to 'disown' Stalin. Trotsky is Orwell’s ‘Snowball’, a blameless defender of the revolution who would have been far more preferable as a leader to the man who sent him into exile. I support at least 50-60% of almost everything Stalin and Mao did , which is way more than any other leader I can think of. Only in this way will your powers of mental comprehension extend themselves naturally. However if Napoleon did not betray the revolution, he consolidated the revolutionary ideals. I, however would like to argue that Stalin was a true follower of Lenin who embodied Leninist ideals. However, due to the revolution’s isolation in a backward semi-feudal country, surrounded by hostile imperialist powers, the revolution suffered a bureaucratic degeneration. However, the book was never finished as Trotsky was murdered by a Stalinist agent in August 1940. However if Napoleon did not betray the revolution, he consolidated the revolutionary ideals. These are merely ideals, and fall apart under scrutiny.Vladimir Lenin was responsible for establishing and legitimating almost every facet of … The starting point of socialism must be a higher point of development of the productive forces than the most advanced capitalist society (the USA for instance). The Marxist analysis contained within the book will be key for anyone attempting to understand either the USSR or the role of Stalin. This is a viable defence for Stalin; that he was only following in his predecessor’s footsteps. The Opposition did not oppose the formation or maintenance of the bloc. Therefore new regime had to rely upon many officials from the old Tsarist regime. Update: if you can give me example of why he betrayed or upheld the ideals it would be good. We know that sometimes it's hard to find inspiration, so we provide you with hundreds of related samples. Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity 2. How Stalin Betrayed October (Marxist Monthly, Vol. Unfortunately for the country concerned “you cannot make an omelette without breaking eggs”7; these words of Stalin’s in his 1939 work ‘A Critical Survey of Bolshevism” were perhaps an attempt at justifying his actions up to that date, and indeed a warning sign of what was to come.Siding with the hated fascist enemy in the 1939 Nazi-Soviet Pact was a prime example of Stalin’s many diversions from political ideology in favour of pragmatic solutions. Perhaps people just did not realise that after such a long time under a government which was supposed to be the polar opposite of the Romanov dynasty, their lives were ultimately no different. 9 10 11. However, this is repulsive to Marxist doctrine and arguably the least Marxist aspect of Stalin’s leadership was his lack of interest in spreading the workers’ revolution. Who do you think was the more important figure in Russian history, Lenin or Stalin? This meant that a layer of bureaucrats began to creep back. I have to write a paper about it and I have no idea how to answer this. And, with the current housing crisis pushing many students into organising rent strikes up and down the country, there's no better time to reflect on the lessons passed down to us from the struggles of the past. Unfortunately, the revolutions in other countries were betrayed by their reformist leaders. While the free essays can give you inspiration for writing, they cannot be used 'as is' because they will not meet your assignment's requirements. But they knew it for what it was–a purely tactical manoeuvre by both ... dogged only in their determination to betray. However he did betray some ideals for either his personal gain or in order to better control the situation. Soviet Union. The only way of determining whether Napoleon consolidated or betrayed the revolution is to explore his actions such as his military success, Dictatorship and social reforms. The Communist Parties were purged and became a mouthpiece for the Moscow bureaucracy. The Russian Revolution was the most important event in history, where for the first time the workers came to power and swept out all the landlords and capitalists. FIRSTLY I’D LIKE to recommend that the readers check out an important work in the history of Marxism: Leon Trotsky’s The Revolution Betrayed. As just one example, the ‘lubyanka’ in Moscow, which was taken over by Lenin’s Bolsheviks in 1918 and is still the home of Russian intelligence in the present day, became a symbol of oppression when it was used as a base for Lenin’s ‘Cheka’ secret police. If Napoleon betrayed the Revolution then he betrayed the ideals of Liberty, equality and fraternity. However if Napoleon did not betray the revolution, he consolidated the revolutionary ideals. Trotsky, who opposed Stalinism to the end, wrote a biography of Stalin, to explain Stalin’s rise from obscurity to become the dictator of the Soviet Union. Stalin did betray the Revolution. But over all, people under Napoleon's rule are happy (except the royalists). was poor classroom management together with a lack of discipline. • They ended up asking each other what to do next and did not learn any skills. What are your opinions on Stalin? Thanks. Communist victories internationally owed little or nothing to him or his government, notably Mao Zedong’s ‘People’s Republic’ of China in 1949. The failure of the German revolution in 1918 left the USSR completely isolated in the world. Those that spoke out, or just those who Stalin thought were likely to speak out, were silenced or had their stories disclaimed by the Stalinist media, always rewriting history in “the great Stalin school of falsification”4. The masses were tired and weary after years of war, civil war and exhaustion. However, taking into account the fact that Marx and Engels foresaw Communism as a ‘utopia’, it was not in reality even a ‘dictatorship of the proletariat’ in any shape or form, since the people had no say in how their lives were run under Lenin or Stalin. He consolidated his power by eliminating all opposition, including the Left Opposition of Trotsky. We are fighting for a workers’ democracy, where there is complete control by the working class. This was the beginning of a period in which economic growth continued rapidly thanks to the planned economy (instead of a capitalist economy), but where the grip of the working class was increasingly weakened. After Lenin’s death, Stalin managed to wheedle himself into power at the head of a growing bureaucratic reaction. The first complete edition of Trotsky’s unfinished biography of Stalin has just been published by Wellred Books. Answer Save. The Revolution Betrayed is one of the most important Marxist texts of all time. We do not need a bureaucracy as much of the economic organisation of society can now be computerised. T he historians of the Soviet Union cannot fail to conclude that the policy of the ruling bureaucracy upon great questions has been a series of contradictory zigzags. In Prose. Yet these ‘Trotskyists’ – in reality a loosely applied catch-all label for anyone deemed dangerous or irritating to Stalin – became via the media evil opponents of the revolution. He took responsibility for the protection and advancement of a country which was not his own; he insisted that the country and communism itself would ‘be crushed’ by the western capitalist powers within ten years. Stalin – the betrayer of the revolution The Russian Revolution was the most important event in history, where for the first time the workers came to power and swept out all the landlords and capitalists. The embarrassment of the Bolshevik party, self-proclaimed saviours of the masses, only winning a quarter of the masses’ votes was clearly too great for Lenin.Lenin was not the faultless figure his supporters make him out to be. Was he a ruthless dictator with a personality cult, or a great leader of the USSR that accomplished great things? This transformation amounted, in the regime’s own view, to a revolution, and it cut so deep, or so the official line maintained, that it was ‘equivalent in its consequences to the revolution of October 1917’. Many of the worker Bolsheviks were killed in the civil war waged the White counter-revolutionary armies backed by foreign intervention. Another feature identified with Stalin’s ‘rule by fear’ was the gulag penal system, established by Lenin and used for political opponents. Whilst it would be easy to attribute the subsequent degeneration of the Russian Revolution to the cruel and power obsessed nature of Stalin’s character, this is a flawed analysis. He most certainly wasn't ten epitome. (Russian: Преданная революция: Что такое СССР и куда он идет?) I think that's BS, but I'd like some hard evidence and opinions of other people to know if Stalin actually betrayed or fulfill the boundaries of the revolution. Did Stalin betray the Russian Revolution? Trotsky was a revolutionary who, along with Lenin, led the overthrow of the Russian Tsarist dynasty in … Stalin in practice was no different from the Tsar Nicholas II calling the concept of life without authoritarian repression “senseless dreams”5. The attempt to turn a pre-industrial country into a Communist power while bypassing the necessary middle stage of capitalism eventually turned out to be such a failure that he “consigned Marxism to the historical scrapheap”5.Lenin betrayed Marxism by bringing about a revolution in the wrong country at the wrong point in its development, and also betrayed the revolution itself with his tools of manipulation and terror. Stalin – the betrayer of the revolution. The ‘Great Patriotic War’, itself a contradiction in terms as a Marxist leader has to discourage nationalism rather than encourage it if he is to call himself Marxist at all, saw more hypocritical actions on Stalin’s part, not least the toleration of religion exclusively as a morale boost; this could only have been seen as heresy for the committed atheists Marx and Lenin. Stalin and Leningrad Stalin was always suspicious of Russia's former capital. "My mother, father and I were all devoured by the Cultural Revolution," said Zhang, 60, who is now a lawyer. To guide means at least in some degree to exercise foresight. With no support from any countries, the Russian Revolution was in a “besieged fortress”. He became their figure head, creating a totalitarian regime in the USSR and in the leadership of the so-called Communist Party. Did he betray Lenins ideas or did he uplift them? There is an almost romantic stereotype which dominates traditional history of the Soviet Union, which is perhaps best exemplified in George Orwell’s ‘Animal Farm’; that the revolution was wholly good-natured, led by the disciple of Marx, Lenin. The Bolsheviks did not believe you could establish “socialism in one country”, especially in backward Russia, but was the beginning of a world socialist revolution. If Napoleon betrayed the Revolution then he betrayed the ideals of Liberty, equality and fraternity. In order to investigate the claim that Napoleon betrayed the revolution', it has to be determined what is the French revolution? Even the tools that the tsars used were similar to Stalin’s; the Ochrana and NKVD carried out much the same kind of persecution and terror, except that Stalin’s NKVD was many times more severe. Without a thorough knowledge of this work, it is impossible to understand the reasons for the collapse of the Soviet Union and the events of the last ten years in Russia and on a world scale. Some socialists argue that Stalin was a vile tyrant who betrayed the ideals of Lenin. 2008-10-07 13:28:41 2008-10-07 13:28:41. Stalin continued to believe in the Leninist doctrine of ‘deliberate revolution’, that employing the moral authority of one party and military force as means to enhance the establishment of the socialist state.